For detailed information on the current facility operations, please click here.
The mission of the Protein Technologies Facility (ProTech) is to further research in molecular and cell biology, protein biochemistry, and structural biology by overcoming major bottlenecks in these fields.
Our core services include molecular cloning, protein production and purification, and biophysical characterization of proteins. Since 2014, we also offer services surrounding the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering technology.
We offer customized generation of DNA constructs for recombinant protein production as a stand-alone service or as the first step in a protein production project. We are specialized in generating multi-gene expression constructs for production of protein complexes.
We offer recombinant protein production in E. coli, Drosophila S2 cells, insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), and HEK293 cells.
Protein purification is offered as a full service at different scales. Due to limited capacity, for projects requiring purification of multiple proteins we also offer training and access to the equipment in our facility.
We offer protein characterization services using a variety of Biophysical techniques to study protein stability, oligomeric state, and secondary structure, or to analyze biomolecular interactions.
We also provide instrument training and access for some of these methods. To gain an overview of the techniques available, please see the Equipment section. More information can be found on the ProTech Wiki, accessible via MyVBCF. To discuss your biophysical characterization project, please contact Arthur Sedivy.
At this time, the Genome Engineering Facility is no longer able to accept new projects involving CRISPR/Cas9 mediated modifications of mammalian cell lines, generation of targeting constructs, or production of gRNAs. If you require help with plant genome engineering projects, please, contact Vera Schoft. For inquiries about the status of genome engineering projects initiated before July 2020 or the availability of reagents, please contact David Drechsel.
The OmniSEC system combines analytical size exclusion chromatography with right angle light scattering and measurement of refractive index, to accurately determine protein molecular weights and concentrations. It can be used to analyze the oligomeric state of proteins and protein complexes and to quantify the different species present in a sample. A full UV-vis spectrum and intrinsic viscosity measurements enable the accurate determination of extinction coefficients and shape/size of protein samples.
The PEAQ-ITC instrument can be used to perform isothermal titration calorimetry experiments to measure biomolecular interaction parameters. The change in enthalpy upon ligand binding is directly measured by the instrument and can then be used to determine the dissociation constant, stoichiometry, and other thermodynamic parameters of the binding interaction. Interactions in the high nanomolar to high micromolar range can be determined using the PEAQ-ITC.
The MASS-1 instrument is a system for measuring biomolecular interactions by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). In addition to determining dissociation constants, SPR is ideal for measuring kinetics of interactions (kon and koff).
The SPR service is only possible as a full-service. In exceptional cases, access is offered to experienced users.
DLS is a label free technique that analyzes particle size distribution in a bulk sample. It is mainly used for protein quality control, as you can detect size distributions of molecules and therefore aggregation and oligomerization of your protein of interest. The Dynapro II plate reader can also be used for screening or long-term stability measurements. Experiments can be carried out for you; alternatively, you may receive training and can then book the instrument yourself.
Circular Dichroism is a spectroscopic technique that uses circularly polarized light to study the structure of chiral molecules, such as proteins. The CD spectrum of a protein can be used to determine protein secondary structure or some aspects of tertiary structure. CD can also be used to study protein stability using thermal melt analysis to determine protein melting temperatures (Tm). We perform CD on a Chirascan Plus CD spectrometer from Applied Photophysics. Experiments can be carried out for you; alternatively, you may receive training and can then book the instrument yourself.
MST is a novel technique used to determine molecular affinities. Thermophoretic changes upon molecular interaction can be monitored by fluorescent labeling or via tryptophan fluorescence, revealing binding constants in the range of nM to mM. Unlike many other methods, MST experiments can be performed rapidly and with small amounts of sample. We have two instruments for performing MST experiments, the NT.115 and the NT.LabelFree. MST experiments can be performed as a service, or you can receive training and then book the instruments yourself.
The NanoTemper Prometheus is a multi-purpose, label-free instrument measuring both intrinsic protein fluorescence and scattering while applying a defined temperature profile. Structural changes (folding/unfolding) as well as aggregation can be monitored over time, as a function of temperature, or under different chemical conditions. Since a sensitive fluorescence detection setup is used, only a minute protein sample is needed (>5µg/ml, 10µl). The Prometheus serves not only as a quality control instrument but also as a tool to find optimum conditions by using buffer screens to optimize stability. Using the Prometheus as a tool for day-to-day protein quality checks will improve the reproducibility of subsequent experiments that use purified proteins for structural and interaction studies while screening for potential binders can open up subsequent avenues of investigation.
The CreoptixTM WAVE is a novel, highly sensitive label-free biosensor used to analyze the affinity and kinetics of molecular interactions. The CreoptixTM WAVE provides similar information to the well-known Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors but with increased sensitivity and lower noise, a superior “no-clog” microfluidics system allowing the detection and characterization of interactions in crude samples, and the ability to measure a very broad kinetic range (ka=103 – 3x109 M-1 sec-1; kd = 10-5 – 5 sec-1). Additionally, sample consumption, although dependent on the system studied, is very low. Combined with user friendly and robust analysis software, the CreoptixTM WAVE is ideal to study many different sample types and systems including those previously inaccessible using conventional biosensors.
If you are a new user, please contact David Drechsel (for ProTech core services) or Arthur Sedivy (for biophysical characterization services) to discuss your project requirements. To order services and book instruments, please use our web-based booking and request system. IMP, IMBA, GMI, and MFPL users can log in with their usual institute network accounts. External users must register. For questions, please contact protech(at)vbcf.ac.at.
Pricing information can be found on the ProTech MyVBCF Wiki site.
We require acknowledgement of facility use in publications.
A simple statement is sufficient and can be placed in the Materials and Methods section or in the Acknowledgments section, depending on the journal format.
The XXXXXX was performed by the Protein Technologies Facility at Vienna BioCenter Core Facilities (VBCF), member of the Vienna BioCenter (VBC), Austria.
In case of (co-)authorship:
The Vienna BioCenter Core Facilities (VBCF) Protein Technologies Facility acknowledges funding from the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science & Research; and the City of Vienna.
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GoldenBac: a simple, highly efficient, and widely applicable system for construction of multi-gene expression vectors for use with the baculovirus expression vectorsystem. Neuhold J, Radakovics K, Lehner A, Weissmann F, Queralt Garcia M, Romero MC, Berrow NS and Stolt-Bergner P  BMC Biotechnology 20:26
Moyamoya disease factor RNF213 is a giant E3 ligase with a dynein-like core and a distinct ubiquitin-transfer mechanism. Ahel J, Lehner A, Vogel A, Schleiffer A, Meinhart A, Haselbach D, Clausen T  eLife 9:e56185
Natural Killer Cell Activation Receptor NKp30 Oligomerization Depends on Its N-Glycosylation. Skořepa O, Pazicky S, Balousková B, Bláha J, Abreu C, Ječmen T, Rosůlek M, Fish A, Sedivy A, Harlos K, Dohnálek J, Skálová T, Vaněk O  Cancers, 12(7), 1998
CRISPR-Switch regulates sgRNA activity by Cre recombination for sequential editing of two loci. Chylinski K, Hubmann M, Hanna RE, Yanchus C, Michlits G, Uijttewaal ECH, Doench J, Schramek D & Elling U. Nature Communications volume 10, Article number: 5454 (2019).
Molecular features of the UNC-45 chaperone critical for binding and folding muscle myosin. Hellerschmied D, Lehner A, Franicevic N, Arnese R, Johnson C, Vogel A, Meinhart A, Kurzbauer R, Deszcz L, Gazda L, Geeves M & Clausen T. Nature Communications volume 10, Article number: 4781 (2019).
Data Descriptor: Map of physical interactions between extracellular domains of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases. Mott GA, Smakowska-Luzan E, Pasha A, Parys K, Howton TC, Neuhold J, Lehner A, Grünwald K, Stolt-Bergner P, Provart NJ, Mukhtar MS, Desveaux D, Guttman DS, Belkhadir Y, Scientific Data 2019, 6:190025
Multiplex mutagenesis of four clustered CrRLK1L with CRISPR/Cas9 exposes their growth regulatory roles in response to metal ions
Richter J, Watson JM, Stasnik P, Borowska M, Neuhold J, Berger M, Stolt-Bergner P, Schoft V, Hauser MT. Scientific Reports, Article number: 12182 (2018)
Baculovirus-driven protein expression in insect cells: A benchmarking study
Stolt-Bergner P, Benda C, Bergbrede T, Besir H, Celie PHN, Chang C, Drechsel D, Fischer A, Geerlof A, Giabbai B, van den Heuvel J, Huber G, Knecht W, Lehner A, Lemaitre R, Nordén K, Pardee G, Racke I, Remans K, Sander A, Scholz J, Stadnik M, Storici P, Weinbruch D, Zaror I, Lua LHL, Suppmann S. J. Struct. Biol. 2018 Mar 12;
UFD-2 is an adaptor-assisted E3 ligase targeting unfolded proteins
Hellerschmied D, Roessler M, Lehner A, Gazda L, Stejskal K, Imre R, Mechtler K, Dammermann A, Clausen T. Nat Commun 2018 02 02; 9 (1)
An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases
Smakowska-Luzan E, Mott GA, Parys K, Stegmann M, Howton TC, Layeghifard M, Neuhold J, Lehner A, Kong J, Grünwald K, Weinberger N, Satbhai SB, Mayer D, Busch W, Madalinski M, Stolt-Bergner P, Provart NJ, Mukhtar MS, Zipfel C, Desveaux D, Guttman DS, Belkhadir Y. Nature 2018 Jan 18; 553 (7688)
Protection of Arabidopsis blunt-ended telomeres is mediated by a physical association with the Ku heterodimer
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The receptor kinase FER is a RALF-regulated scaffold controlling plant immune signaling
Stegmann M, Monaghan J, Smakowska-Luzan E, Rovenich H, Lehner A, Holton N, Belkhadir Y, Zipfel C. (2017) Science Jan 20;355(6322):287-289.
Genetic code expansion for multiprotein complex engineering
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The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex generates heterotypic ubiquitin chains.
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A PI3K-WIPI2 positive feedback loop allosterically activates LC3 lipidation in autophagy.
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Cerebral organoid model reveals excessive proliferation of human caudal late interneuron progenitors in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Eichmüller OL et al.,  https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.27.967802 bioRxiv
Generation of New Isogenic Models of Huntington’s Disease Using CRISPR-Cas9 Technology.
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A cross-kingdom conserved ER-phagy receptor maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis during stress. Stephani M, Picchianti L, Gajic A, Beveridge R, Skarwan E, Sanchez de Medina Hernandez V, Mohseni A, Clavel M, Zeng Y, Naumann C, Matuszkiewicz M, Turco E, Loefke C, Li B, Dürnberger G, Schutzbier M, Chen HT, Abdrakhmanov A, Savova A, Chia KS, Djamei A, Schaffner I, Abel S, Jiang L, Mechtler K, Ikeda F, Martens S, Clausen T, Dagdas Y. Elife. 2020, 9:e58396.
Structure of the human core transcription-export complex reveals a hub for multivalent interactions. Pühringer T, Hohmann U, Fin L, Pacheco-Fiallos B, Schellhaas U, Brennecke J, Plaschka C. Elife. 2020, 9:e61503.
Site-specific ubiquitination of the E3 ligase HOIP regulates apoptosis and immune signaling. Fennell LM, Gomez Diaz C, Deszcz L, Kavirayani A, Hoffmann D, Yanagitani K, Schleiffer A, Mechtler K, Hagelkruys A, Penninger J, Ikeda F. EMBO J. 2020, 39(24):e103303.
Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulator A46: Destructive Interactions with MAL and MyD88 Shown by Negative-Stain Electron Microscopy. Azar DF, Haas M, Fedosyuk S, Rahaman MH, Hedger A, Kobe B, Skern T. Structure. 2020, 28(12):1271-1287.
Molecular mechanism of leukocidin GH-integrin CD11b/CD18 recognition and species specificity. Trstenjak N, Milić D, Graewert MA, Rouha H, Svergun D, Djinović-Carugo K, Nagy E, Badarau A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 117(1):317-327.
Bridge helix arginines play a critical role in Cas9 sensitivity to mismatches. Bratovič M, Fonfara I, Chylinski K, Gálvez EJC, Sullivan TJ, Boerno S, Timmermann B, Boettcher M, Charpentier E. Nat Chem Biol. 2020 16(5):587-595.
SYNERGISTIC ON AUXIN AND CYTOKININ 1 positively regulates growth and attenuates soil pathogen resistance. Hurný A, Cuesta C, Cavallari N, Ötvös K, Duclercq J, Dokládal L, Montesinos JC, Gallemí M, Semerádová H, Rauter T, Stenzel I, Persiau G, Benade F, Bhalearo R, Sýkorová E, Gorzsás A, Sechet J, Mouille G, Heilmann I, De Jaeger G, Ludwig-Müller J, Benková E. Nat Commun. 2020, 11(1):2170.
The biophysical, molecular, and anatomical landscape of pigeon CRY4: A candidate light-based quantal magnetosensor. Hochstoeger T, Al Said T, Maestre D, Walter F, Vilceanu A, Pedron M, Cushion TD, Snider W, Nimpf S, Nordmann GC, Landler L, Edelman N, Kruppa L, Dürnberger G, Mechtler K, Schuechner S, Ogris E, Malkemper EP, Weber S, Schleicher E, Keays DA. Sci Adv. 2020, 6(33):eabb9110.
Receptor kinase module targets PIN-dependent auxin transport during canalization. Hajný J, Prát T, Rydza N, Rodriguez L, Tan S, Verstraeten I, Domjan D, Mazur E, Smakowska-Luzan E, Smet W, Mor E, Nolf J, Yang B, Grunewald W, Molnár G, Belkhadir Y, De Rybel B, Friml J. Science. 2020, 370(6516):550-557.
Human diamine oxidase cellular binding and internalization in vitro and rapid clearance in vivo are not mediated by N-glycans but by heparan sulfate proteoglycan interactions. Gludovacz E, Schuetzenberger K, Resch M, Tillmann K, Petroczi K, Vondra S, Vakal S, Schosserer M, Virgolini N, Pollheimer J, Salminen TA, Jilma B, Borth N, Boehm T. Glycobiology. 2020 cwaa090.
Transcriptional Responses to IFN-γ Require Mediator Kinase-Dependent Pause Release and Mechanistically Distinct CDK8 and CDK19 Functions. Steinparzer I, Sedlyarov V, Rubin JD, Eislmayr K, Galbraith MD, Levandowski CB, Vcelkova T, Sneezum L, Wascher F, Amman F, Kleinova R, Bender H, Andrysik Z, Espinosa JM, Superti-Furga G, Dowell RD, Taatjes DJ, Kovarik P. Molecular Cell, Volume 76, Issue 3, 7 November 2019, Pages 485-499.e8
Meiotic DNA Repair in the Nucleolus Employs a Nonhomologous End-Joining Mechanism. Sims J, Copenhaver GP, Schlögelhofer P. The Plant Cell, Vol. 31: 2259–2275, September 2019
A PI3K-WIPI2 positive feedback loop allosterically activates LC3 lipidation in autophagy. Fracchiolla D, Chang C, Hurley JH, Martens S. doi: doi.org/10.1101/2019.12.18.880591
Site-specific ubiquitination of the E3 ligase HOIP regulates cell death and immune signaling. Fennell LM, Deszcz L, Schleiffer A, Mechtler K, Kavirayani A, Ikeda F. doi: doi.org/10.1101/742544
Prdm12 Directs Nociceptive Sensory Neuron Development by Regulating the Expression of the NGF Receptor TrkA. Desiderio S, Vermeiren S, Van Campenhout C, Kricha S, Malki E, Richts S, Fletcher EV, Vanwelden T, Schmidt BZ, Henningfeld KA, Pieler T, Woods CG, Nagy V, Verfaillie C, Bellefroid EJ. Cell Rep. 2019 Mar 26;26(13): 3522-3536.
Telomerase RNAs in land plants. Fajkus P, Peška V, Závodník M, Fojtová M, Fulnečková J, Dobias Š, Kilar A, Dvořáčková M, Zachová D, Nečasová I, Sims J, Sýkorová E, Fajkus J.
The nascent RNA binding complex SFiNX licenses piRNA-guided heterochromatin formation. Batki J, Schnabl J, Wang J, Handler D, Andreev VI, Stieger CE, Novatchkova M, Lampersberger L, Kauneckaite K, Xie W, Mechtler K, Patel DJ, Brennecke J. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2019 Aug;26(8):720-731.
A Heterochromatin-Specific RNA Export Pathway Facilitates piRNA Production. ElMaghraby MF, Andersen PR, Pühringer F, Hohmann U, Meixner K, Lendl T, Tirian L, Brennecke J. Cell. 2019 Aug 8;178(4):964-979.
Bacterial medium-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acid metabolites trigger immunity in Arabidopsis plants.
Kutschera A, Dawid C, Gisch N, Schmid C, Raasch L, Gerster T, Schäffer M, Smakowska-Luzan E, Belkhadir Y, Vlot AC, Chandler CE, Schellenberger R, Schwudke D, Ernst RK, Dorey S, Hückelhoven R, Hofmann T, Ranf S, Science. 2019 Apr 12;364(6436):178-181
Differential Action of Reelin on Oligomerization of ApoER2 and VLDL Receptor in HEK293 Cells Assessed by Time-Resolved Anisotropy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy.
Dlugosz P, Tresky R, Nimpf J, Front Mol Neurosci. 2019 Feb 26;12:53
Adaptation of the Staphylococcus aureus leukocidin LukGH for the rabbit host by protein engineering.
Trstenjak N, Stulik L, Rouha H, Zmajkovic J, Zerbs M, Nagy E, Badarau A, Biochem J. 2019 Jan 25;476(2):275-292
qEva-CRISPR: a method for quantitative evaluation of CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing in target and off-target sites.
Dabrowska M, Czubak K, Juzwa W, Krzyzosiak WJ, Olejniczak M, Kozlowski P, Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Sep 28;46(17):e101.
Cellular N-myristoyltransferases play a crucial picornavirus genus-specific role in viral assembly, virion maturation, and infectivity.
Corbic Ramljak I, Stanger J, Real-Hohn A, Dreier D, Wimmer L, Redlberger-Fritz M, Fischl W, Klingel K, Mihovilovic MD, Blaas D, Kowalski H, PLoS Pathog. 2018 Aug 6;14(8):e1007203.
LHP1 Interacts with ATRX through Plant-Specific Domains at Specific Loci Targeted by PRC2.
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Transcriptome Study of an Exophiala dermatitidis PKS1 Mutant on an ex Vivo Skin Model: Is Melanin Important for Infection?
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Selective targeting of 3 repeat Tau with brain penetrating single chain antibodies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
Spencer B, Brüschweiler S, Sealey-Cardona M, Rockenstein E, Adame A, Florio J, Mante M, Trinh I, Rissman RA, Konrat R, Masliah E, Acta Neuropathol. 2018 Jul;136(1):69-87.
A Functional Study of AUXILIN-LIKE1 and 2, Two Putative Clathrin Uncoating Factors in Arabidopsis
Maciek Adamowski, Madhumitha Narasimhan, Urszula Kania, Matouš Glanc, Geert De Jaege and Jiří Friml. Plant Cell. 2018 Mar; 30(3): 700–716
Molecular basis for inner kinetochore configuration through RWD domain-peptide interactions
Schmitzberger F, Richter MM, Gordiyenko Y, Robinson CV, Dadlez M, Westermann S. EMBO J. 2017 12 01; 36 (23).
DNA Cross-Bridging Shapes a Single Nucleus from a Set of Mitotic Chromosomes
Samwer M, Schneider MWG, Hoefler R, Schmalhorst PS, Jude JG, Zuber J, Gerlich DW. Cell 2017 Aug 24; 170 (5).
HuR small molecule inhibitor elicits differential effects in adenomatosis polyposis and colorectal carcinogenesis
Lang M, Berry D, Passecker K, Mesteri I, Bhuju S, Ebner F, Sedlyarov V, Evstatiev R, Dammann K, Loy A, Kuzyk O, Kovarik P, Khare V, Beibel M, Roma G, Meisner-Kober N and Gasche C. Cancer Research epub 20 Feb 2017.
Root diffusion barrier control by a vasculature-derived peptide binding to the SGN3 receptor
Doblas VG, Smakowska-Luzan E, Fujita S, Alassimone J, Barberon M, Madalinski M, Belkhadir Y, Geldner N. (2017) Science Jan 20;355(6322):280-284.
Probing an Allosteric Pocket of CDK2 with Small Molecules
Christodoulou MS, Caporuscio F, Restelli V, Carlino L, Cannazza G, Costanzi E, Citti C, Lo Presti L, Pisani P, Battistutta R, Broggini M, Passarella D, Rastelli G. ChemMedChem 2017 Jan 05; 12 (1).
A rapid method for detecting protein-nucleic acid interactions by protein induced fluorescence enhancement
Valuchova S, Fulnecek J, Petrov AP, Tripsianes K, Riha K. (2016). Sci Rep. 6:39653.
Cross-regulation by CrcZ RNA controls anoxic biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pusic P, Tata M, Wolfinger MT, Sonnleitner E, Häussler S, Bläsi U. (2016). Sci Rep. 6:39621
Linear ubiquitination by LUBEL has a role in Drosophila heat stress response
Asaoka T, Almagro J, Ehrhardt C, Tsai I, Schleiffer A, Deszcz L, Junttila S, Ringrose L, Mechtler K, Kavirayani A, Gyenesei A, Hofmann K, Duchek P, Rittinger K, Ikeda F. (2016). EMBO Rep. 17(11):1624-1640. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
Genomic screens identify a new phytobacterial microbe-associated molecular pattern and the cognate Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase that mediates its immune elicitation
Mott AG, Thakur S, Smakowska E, Wang PW, Belkhadir Y, Desveaux D, Guttman DS. (2016). Genome Biol. 17:98.
The Sodium Glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is an Extremely Efficient Facilitator of Passive Water Transport
Erokhova L, Horner A, Ollinger N, Siligan C, Pohl P. (2016). J Biol Chem epub March 4, 2016
Ribeiro EA Jr, Pinotsis N, Ghisleni A, Salmazo A, Konarev PV, Kostan J, Sjöblom B, Schreiner C, Polyansky AA, Gkougkoulia EA, Holt MR, Aachmann FL, Zagrović B, Bordignon E, Pirker KF, Svergun DI, Gautel M, Djinović-Carugo K. (2014). Cell 159(6):1447-60.
Structure-Function Analysis of Heterodimer Formation, Oligomerization and Receptor Binding of the Staphylococcus aureus Bi-component Toxin LukGH
Badarau A, Rouha H, Malafa S, Logan DT, Håkansson M, Stulik L, Dolezilkova I, Teubenbacher A, Gross K, Maierhofer B, Weber S, Jägerhofer M, Hoffmann D, Nagy E. (2014). J Biol Chem epub2014 Nov 3.
Assembly Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1, a Multidomain Cytoskeletal Protein
Vidilaseris K, Shimanovskaya E, Esson HJ, Morriswood B, Dong G (2014). J Biol Chem 289(34):23870-81.
A strand-specific switch in noncoding transcription switches the function of a Polycomb/Trithorax response element
Herzog VA, Lempradl A, Trupke J, Okulski H, Altmutter C, Ruge F, Boidol B, Kubicek S, Schmauss G, Aumayr A, Ruf M, Pospisilik A, Dimond A, Senergin HB, Vargas ML, Simon JA, Ringrose L. (2014). Nat Genet 46(9):973-981.
The unique regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in a Gram-positive bacterium
Santos JA, Alonso-García N, Macedo-Ribeiro S, Pereira PJ. (2014). Proc Natl Acad Sci 111(22):E2251-60.
Characterization and Structure of the Vaccinia Virus NF-kB Antangonist A46
Fedosyuk, S., Grishkovskaya I., de Almeida Ribeiro E Jr., Skern T. (2014). J Biol Chem 289(6):3749-62.
Flexible long-range loops in the VH gene region of the Igh locus facilitate the generation of a diverse antibody repertoire
Medvedovic J, Ebert A, Tagoh H, Tamir IM, Schwickert TA, Novatchkova M, Sun Q, Huis In't Veld PJ, Guo C, Yoon HS, Denizot Y, Holwerda SJ, de Laat W, Cogne M, Shi Y, Alt FW, Busslinger M (2013). Immunity 39(2):229-44.
Sufficient amounts of functional HOP2/MND1 complex promote interhomolog DNA repair but are dispensable for intersister DNA repair during meiosis in Arabidopsis
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