Portable Fluorometer FluorPen FP 100-MAX-D

Records two parameters:

FT - continuous fluorescence yield in non-actinic light

FTis equivalent to F0 if the leaf sample is dark-adapted.

QY - Photosystem II quantum yield. 

QY is equivalent to FV/FM in dark-adapted samples and to FV ' /FM ' in light-adapted samples. FV/FM is the most frequently used chlorophyll fluorescence parameter.

Pre-defined protocols for measuring:

OJIP Analysis 
Application of chlorophyll fluorescence fast-transient analysis (OJIP) is a simple and non-invasive tool to monitor chloroplast function. Provided OJIP analysis is used as a sensitive and reliable fast test for the functionality and vitality of the photosynthetic system. 

NPQ - Non-photochemical quenching 
Provided are two predefined NPQ protocols differing in the duration of light exposure and dark recovery phase as well as in the number of intervals between the pulses. It is typically used for quantification of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching in dark-adapted samples.

Light Curve 
There are three predefined Light Curve protocols based on pulse modulated fluorometry that differ in number and duration of single light phases and light intensities. Light Curve protocols provide successive measurements of the sample photosynthesis under continuous illumination at various light intensities and relate the rate of photosynthesis to photon flux density.

Sample holder: detachable leaf-clips

Leaf-clips are suitable for experiments on long-term dark adaptation. They also allow simultaneous dark adaptation of several leaves using several clips in situ under light. The readings can then be taken one after another by attaching the device unit to each clip.